Книга: Шелковый путь. Дорога тканей, рабов, идей и религий
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Дальше: Примечания

909

Sahagún, Florentine Codex, 12, рр. 55–56.

910

I. Rouse, The Tainos: Rise and Decline of the People who Greeted Columbus (New Haven, 1992); N. D. Cook, Born to Die: Disease and New World Conquest, 1492–1650 (Cambridge, 1998).

911

R. McCaa, ‘Spanish and Nahuatl Views on Smallpox and Demographic Catastrophe in Mexico’, Journal of Interdisciplinary History 25 (1995), рр. 397–431. В целом см. A. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange: Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport, CT, 2003).

912

Bernardino de Sahagún, Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (Mexico City, 1992), р. 491; López de Gómara, Life of the Conqueror, 141–142, рр. 285–287.

913

Cook, Born to Die, рр. 15–59, а также Crosby, Columbian Exchange, рр. 56, 58; C. Merbs, ‘A New World of Infectious Disease’, Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 35.3 (1993), р. 4.

914

Fernández de Enciso, Suma de geografía, cited by E. Vilches, New World Gold: Cultural Anxiety and Monetary Disorder in Early Modern Spain (Chicago, 2010), р. 24.

915

V. von Hagen, The Aztec: Man and Tribe (New York, 1961), р. 155.

916

Р. Cieza de León, Crónica del Perú, tr. A. Cook and N. Cook, The Discovery and Conquest of Peru (Durham, NC, 1998), р. 361.

917

О Диего де Ордасе см. C. García, Vida del Comendador Diego de Ordaz, Descubridor del Orinoco (Mexico City, 1952).

918

A. Barrera, ‘Empire and Knowledge: Reporting from the New World’, Colonial Latin American Review 15.1 (2006), рр. 40–41.

919

H. Rabe, Deutsche Geschichte 1500–1600. Das Jahrhundert der Glaubensspaltung (Munich, 1991), рр. 149–153.

920

Письмо Пьетро Паскуалиго, in J. Brewer (ed.), Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII, 23 vols (London, 1867), 1.1, рр. 116–117.

921

Об Анне Болейн см. Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts, Relating to English Affairs, Existing in the Archives and Collections of Venice, and in Other Libraries of Northern Italy, ed. R. Brown et al., 38 vols (London, 1970), 4, р. 824.

922

Francisco López de Gómara, Historia general de las Indias, ed. J. Gurría Lacroix (Caracas, 1979), 1, р. 7.

923

Pedro Mexía, Historia del emperador Carlos V, ed. J. de Mata Carrizo (Madrid, 1945), р. 543, а также здесь Vilches, New World Gold, р. 26.

924

F. Ribeiro da Silva, Dutch and Portuguese in Western Africa: Empires, Merchants and the Atlantic System, 1580–1674 (Leiden, 2011), рр. 116–117; Coates, Convicts and Orphans, рр. 42–62.

925

E. Donnan (ed.), Documents Illustrative of the History of the Slave Trade to America, 4 vols (Washington, DC, 1930), 1, рр. 41–42.

926

B. Davidson, The Africa Past: Chronicles from Antiquity to Modern Times (Boston, 1964), рр. 194–197.

927

Brásio, Missionaria Africana, 1, рр. 521–527.

928

A. Pagden, Spanish Imperialism and the Political Imagination: Studies in European and Spanish-American Social and Political Theory, 1513–1830 (New Haven, 1990).

929

Письмо Маноэля да Нобрега, цитируется по T. Botelho, ‘Labour Ideologies and Labour Relations in Colonial Portuguese America, 1500–1700’, International Review of Social History 56 (2011), р. 288.

930

M. Cortés, Breve compendio de la sphere y el arte de navegar, цитируется по Vilches, New World Gold, рр. 24–25.

931

R. Pieper, Die Vermittlung einer neuen Welt: Amerika im Nachrichtennetz des Habsburgischen Imperiums, 1493–1598 (Mainz, 2000), рр. 162–210.

932

Diego de Haëdo, Topografía e historia general de Arge, tr. H. de Grammont, Histoire des rois d’Alger (Paris, 1998), 1, р. 18.

933

E. Lyon, The Enterprise of Florida: Pedro Menéndez de Avilés and the Spanish Conquest of 1565–1568 (Gainesville, FL, 1986), рр. 9–10.

934

Jose de Acosta, Historia natural y moral de las Indias, in Vilches, New World Gold, р. 27.

935

H. Miskimin, The Economy of Later Renaissance Europe, 1460–1600 (Cambridge, 1977), р. 32; J. Munro, ‘Precious Metals and the Origins of the Price Revolution Reconsidered: The Conjecture of Monetary and Real Forces in the European Inflation of the Early to Mid-16th Century’, in C. Núñez (ed.), Monetary History in Global Perspective, 1500–1808 (Seville, 1998), рр. 35–50; H. İnalcık, ‘The Ottoman State: Economy and Society, 1300–1600’, in H. İnalcık and D. Quataert (eds), An Economic and Social History of the Ottoman Empire, 1300–1914 (Cambridge, 1994), рр. 58–60.

936

Р. Spufford, Money and its Use in Medieval Europe (Cambridge, 1988), р. 377.

937

Ch’oe P’u, Ch’oe P’u’s Diary: A Record of Drifting Across the Sea, tr. J. Meskill (Tucson, AZ, 1965), рр. 93–94.

938

Vélez de Guevara, El diablo conjuelo, цитируется по R. Pike, ‘Seville in the Sixteenth Century’, Hispanic American Historical Review 41.1 (1961), р. 6.

939

Francisco de Ariño, Sucesos de Sevilla de 1592 a 1604, рр. 12–13; Vilches, New World Gold, рр. 25–26.

940

G. de Correa, Lendas de India, 4 vols (Lisbon, 1858–1864), 1, р. 7; A. Baião and K. Cintra, Ásia de João de Barros: dos feitos que os portugueses fizeram no descombrimento e conquista dos mares e terras do Oriente, 4 vols (Lisbon, 1988), 1, рр. 1–2.

941

A. Velho, Roteiro da Primeira Viagem de Vasco da Gama, ed. N. Águas (Lisbon, 1987), р. 22.

942

S. Subrahmanyam, The Career and Legend of Vasco da Gama (Cambridge, 1997), рр. 79–163.

943

Velho, Roteiro de Vasco da Gama, рр. 54–55.

944

Там же, р. 58.

945

S. Subrahmanyam, ‘The Birth-Pangs of Portuguese Asia: Revisiting the Fateful “Long Decade” 1498–1509’, Journal of Global History 2 (2007), р. 262.

946

Velho, Roteiro de Vasco da Gama, р. 60.

947

См. Subramanyam, Vasco da Gama, рр. 162–163, 194–195.

948

Письмо короля Мануэля, цитируется по Subrahmanyam, Vasco da Gama, р. 165.

949

B. Diffie and G. Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, 1415–1580 (Oxford, 1977), рр. 172–174; M. Newitt, Portugal in European and World History (2009), рр. 62–65; Delaney, Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem, рр. 124–125; J. Brotton, Trading Territories: Mapping the Early Modern World (London, 1997), рр. 71–72.

950

M. Guedes, ‘Estreito de Magelhães’, in L. Albuquerque and F. Domingues (eds), Dictionário de história dos descobrimentos portugueses, 2 vols (Lisbon, 1994), 2, рр. 640–644.

951

M. Newitt, A History of Portuguese Overseas Expansion, 1400–1668 (London, 2005), рр. 54–57; A. Teixeira da Mota (ed.), A viagem de Fernão de Magalhães e a questão das Molucas (Lisbon, 1975).

952

R. Finlay, ‘Crisis and Crusade in the Mediterranean: Venice, Portugal, and the Cape Route to India (1498–1509)’, Studi Veneziani 28 (1994), рр. 45–90.

953

Girolamo Priuli, I Diarii di Girolamo Priuli, tr. D. Weinstein, Ambassador from Venice (Minneapolis, 1960), рр. 29–30.

954

‘La lettre de Guido Detti’, in Р. Teyssier and Р. Valentin, Voyages de Vasco da Gama: Relations des expeditions de 1497–1499 et 1502–1503 (Paris, 1995), рр. 183–188.

955

‘Relazione delle Indie Orientali di Vicenzo Quirini nel 1506’, in E. Albèri, Le relazioni degli Ambasciatori Veneti al Senato durante il secolo decimosesto, 15 vols (Florence, 1839–1863), 15, рр. 3–19; Subrahmanyam, ‘Birth-Pangs of Portuguese Asia’, р. 265.

956

Р. Johnson Brummett, Ottoman Seapower and Levantine Diplomacy in the Age of Discovery (Albany, NY, 1994), рр. 33–36; Subrahmanyam, ‘Birth-Pangs of Portuguese Asia’, р. 274.

957

G. Ramusio, ‘Navigazione verso le Indie Orientali di Tomé Lopez’, in M. Milanesi (ed.), Navigazioni e viaggi (Turin, 1978), рр. 683–673; Subrahmanyam, Vasco da Gama, р. 205.

958

D. Agius, ‘Qalhat: A Port of Embarkation for India’, in S. Leder, H. Kilpatrick, B. Martel-Thoumian and H. Schönig (eds), Studies in Arabic and Islam (Leuven, 2002), р. 278.

959

C. Silva, O Fundador do ‘Estado Português da Índia’, D. Francisco de Almeida, 1457 (?) –1510 (Lisbon, 1996), р. 284.

960

J. Aubin, ‘Un Nouveau Classique: l’anonyme du British Museum’, in J. Aubin (ed.), Le Latin et l’astrolabe: recherches sur le Portugal de la Renaissance, son expansion en Asie et les relations internationales (Lisbon, 1996), 2, р. 553; S. Subrahmanyam, ‘Letters from a Sinking Sultan’, in L. Thomasz (ed.), Aquém e Além da Taprobana: Estudos Luso-Orientais à Memória de Jean Aubin e Denys Lombard (Lisbon, 2002), рр. 239–269.

961

Silva, Fundador do ‘Estado Português da Índia’, рр. 387–388. О целях и политике Португалии в Атлантическом океане, Персидском заливе, Индийском океане и за его пределами см. F. Bethencourt and D. Curto, Portuguese Oceanic Expansion, 1400–1800 (Cambridge, 2007).

962

G. Scammell, The First Imperial Age: European Overseas Expansion, c. 1400–1715 (London, 1989), р. 79.

963

A. Hamdani, ‘An Islamic Background to the Voyages of Discovery’, in S. Khadra Jayyusi (ed.), The Legacy of Muslim Spain (Leiden, 1992), р. 288. О важности Малакки до завоевания Португалии – K. Hall, ‘Local and International Trade and Traders in the Straits of Melaka Region: 600–1500’, Journal of Economic and Social History of the Orient 47.2 (2004), рр. 213–260.

964

S. Subrahmanyam, ‘Commerce and Conflict: Two Views of Portuguese Melaka in the 1620s’, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 19.1 (1988), рр. 62–79.

965

Atwell, ‘Time, Money and the Weather’, р. 100.

966

Р. de Vos, ‘The Science of Spices: Empiricism and Economic Botany in the Early Spanish Empire’, Journal of World History 17.4 (2006), р. 410.

967

ʿUmar ibn Muḥammad, Rawḍ al-ʿāṭir fī nuzʹhat al-khāṭir, tr. R. Burton, The Perfumed Garden of the Shaykh Nefzawi (New York, 1964), р. 117.

968

F. Lane, ‘The Mediterranean Spice Trade: Further Evidence of its Revival in the Sixteenth Century’, American Historical Review 45.3 (1940), рр. 584–585; M. Pearson, Spices in the Indian Ocean World (Aldershot, 1998), р. 117.

969

Lane, ‘Mediterranean Spice Trade’, рр. 582–583.

970

S. Halikowski Smith, ‘“Profits Sprout Like Tropical Plants”: A Fresh Look at What Went Wrong with the Eurasian Spice Trade, c. 1550–1800’, Journal of Global History 3 (2008), рр. 390–391.

971

Письмо Альберто да Карпи, in K. Setton, The Papacy and the Levant, 1204–1571, 4 vols (Philadelphia, 1976–1984), 3, р. 172, n. 3.

972

Р. Allen, Opus Epistolarum Desiderii Erasmi Roterodami, 12 vols (Oxford, 1906–1958), 9, р. 254; J. Tracy, Emperor Charles V, Impresario of War (Cambridge, 2002), р. 27.

973

A. Clot, Suleiman the Magnificent: The Man, his Life, his Epoch, tr. M. Reisz (New York, 1992), р. 79, а также R. Finlay, ‘Prophecy and Politics in Istanbul: Charles V, Sultan Suleyman and the Habsburg Embassy of 1533–1534’, Journal of Modern History 3 (1998), рр. 249–272.

974

G. Casale, ‘The Ottoman Administration of the Spice Trade in the Sixteenth Century Red Sea and Persian Gulf’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 49.2 (2006), рр. 170–198.

975

L. Riberio, ‘O Primeiro Cerco de Diu’, Studia 1 (1958), рр. 201–295; G. Casale, The Ottoman Age of Exploration (Oxford, 2010), рр. 56–75.

976

G. Casale, ‘Ottoman Guerre de Course and the Indian Ocean Spice Trade: The Career of Sefer Reis’, Itinerario 32.1 (2008), рр. 66–67.

977

Corpo diplomatico portuguez, ed. J. da Silva Mendes Leal and J. de Freitas Moniz, 14 vols (Lisbon, 1862–1910), 9, рр. 110–111.

978

Halikowski Smith, ‘Eurasian Spice Trade’, р. 411; J. Boyajian, Portuguese Trade in Asia under the Habsburgs, 1580–1640 (Baltimore, 1993), рр. 43–44 и табл. 3.

979

Casale, ‘Ottoman Administration of the Spice Trade’, рр. 170–198; также см. здесь N. Stensgaard, The Asian Trade Revolution of the Seventeenth Century: The East India Companies and the Decline of Caravan Trade (Chicago, 1974).

980

S. Subrahmanyam, ‘The Trading World of the Western Indian Ocean, 1546–1565: A Political Interpretation’, in A. de Matos and L. Thomasz (eds), A Carreira da India e as Rotas dos Estreitos (Braga, 1998), рр. 207–229.

981

S. Pamuk, ‘In the Absence of Domestic Currency: Debased European Coinage in the Seventeenth-Century Ottoman Empire’, Journal of Economic History 57.2 (1997), рр. 352–353.

982

H. Crane, E. Akin and G. Necipoğlu, Sinan’s Autobiographies: Five Sixteenth-Century Texts (Leiden, 2006), р. 130.

983

R. McChesney, ‘Four Sources on Shah ʿAbbas’s Building of Isfahan’, Muqarnas 5 (1988), рр. 103–134; Iskandar Munshī, ‘Tārīk-e ʿālamārā-ye ʿAbbāsī, tr. R. Savory, History of Shah ʿAbbas the Great, 3 vols (Boulder, CO, 1978), р. 1038; S. Blake, ‘Shah ʿAbbās and the Transfer of the Safavid Capital from Qazvin to Isfahan’, in A. Newman (ed.), Society and Culture in the Early Modern Middle East: Studies on Iran in the Safavid Period (Leiden, 2003), рр. 145–164.

984

M. Dickson, ‘The Canons of Painting by Ṣādiqī Bek’, in M. Dickson and S. Cary Welch (eds), The Houghton Shahnameh, 2 vols (Cambridge, MA, 1989), 1, р. 262.

985

A. Taylor, Book Arts of Isfahan: Diversity and Identity in Seventeenth-Century Persia (Malibu, 1995).

986

H. Cross, ‘South American Bullion Production and Export, 1550–1750’, in Richards, Precious Metals, р. 402–404.

987

A. Jara, ‘Economia minera e historia eonomica hispano-americana’, in Tres ensayos sobre economia minera hispano-americana (Santiago, 1966).

988

A. Attman, American Bullion in European World Trade, 1600–1800 (Gothenburg, 1986), рр. 6, 81; H-Sh. Chuan, ‘The Inflow of American Silver into China from the Late Ming to the Mid-Ch’ing Period’, Journal of the Institute of Chinese Studies of the Chinese University of Hong Kong 2 (1969), рр. 61–75.

989

B. Karl, ‘“Galanterie di cose rare…’: Filippo Sassetti’s Indian Shopping List for the Medici Grand Duke Francesco and his Brother Cardinal Ferdinando’, Itinerario 32.3 (2008), рр. 23–41. Современное описание ацтекского общества – Diego Durán, Book of the Gods and Rites and the Ancient Calendar, tr. F. Horcasitas and D. Heyden (1971), рр. 273–274.

990

J. Richards, The Mughal Empire (Cambridge, 1993), рр. 6–8.

991

Bābur-Nāma, рр. 173–174. а также D. F. Ruggles, Islamic Gardens and Landscapes (Philadelphia, PA, 2008), р. 70.

992

Bābur-Nāma, р. 359.

993

Ibn Baṭṭūṭa, Travels, 8, 2, р. 478.

994

J. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and High Roads to Empire, 1500–1700 (London, 2002), рр. 112–113. О размерах индийских лошадей – J. Tavernier, Travels in India, ed. V. Ball, 2 vols (London, 1889), 2, р. 263. О лошадях из Центральной Азии см. J. Masson Smith, ‘Mongol Society and Military in the Middle East: Antecedents and Adaptations’, in Y. Lev (ed.), War and Society in the Eastern Mediterranean, 7th–15th Centuries (Leiden, 1997), рр. 247–264.

995

L. Jardine and J. Brotton, Global Interests: Renaissance Art between East and West (London, 2005), рр. 146–148.

996

J. Gommans, ‘Warhorse and Post-Nomadic Empire in Asia, c. 1000–1800’, Journal of Global History 2 (2007), рр. 1–21.

997

См. S. Dale, Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600–1750 (Cambridge, 1994), рр. 41–42.

998

Цитируется по M. Alam, ‘Trade, State Policy and Regional Change: Aspects of Mughal-Uzbek Commercial Relations, c. 1550–1750’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 37.3 (1994), р. 221; также см. здесь C. Singh, Region and Empire: Punjab in the Seventeenth Century (New Delhi, 1991), рр. 173–203.

999

J. Gommans, Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire, 1500–1700 (London, 2002), р. 116.

1000

D. Washbrook, ‘India in the Early Modern World Economy: Modes of Production, Reproduction and Exchange’, Journal of Global History 2 (2007), рр. 92–93.

1001

Письмо Дуарте де Санде, in Documenta Indica, ed. J. Wicki and J. Gomes, 18 vols (Rome, 1948–1988), 9, р. 676.

1002

R. Foltz, ‘Cultural Contacts between Central Asia and Mughal India’, in S. Levi (ed.), India and Central Asia (New Delhi, 2007), рр. 155–175.

1003

M. Subtelny, ‘Mirak-i Sayyid Ghiyas and the Timurid Tradition of Landscape Architecture’, Studia Iranica 24.1 (1995), рр. 19–60.

1004

J. Westcoat, ‘Gardens of Conquest and Transformation: Lessons from the Earliest Mughal Gardens in India’, Landscape Journal 10.2 (1991), рр. 105–114; Ruggles, ‘Humayun’s Tomb and Garden: Typologies and Visual Order’, in А. Petruccioli (ed.), Gardens in the Time of the Great Muslim Empires (Leiden, 1997), рр. 173–186. О влиянии Центральной Азии см., главным образом, M. Subtelny, ‘A Medieval Persian Agricultural Manual in Context: The Irshad al-Ziraʿa in Late Timurid and Early Safavid Khorasan’, Studia Iranica 22.2 (1993), рр. 167–217.

1005

J. Westcoat, M. Brand and N. Mir, ‘The Shedara Gardens of Lahore: Site Documentation and Spatial Analysis’, Pakistan Archaeology 25 (1993), рр. 333–366.

1006

M. Brand and G. Lowry (eds), Fatephur Sikri (Bombay, 1987).

1007

The Shah Jahan Nama of ʿInayat Khan, ed. and tr. W. Begley and Z. Desai (Delhi, 1990), рр. 70–71.

1008

J. Hoil, The Book of Chilam Balam of Chumayel, tr. R. Roys (Washington, DC, 1967), рр. 19–20.

1009

Письмо Джона Ньюбери, in J. Courtney Locke (ed.), The First Englishmen in India (London, 1930), р. 42.

1010

Samuel Purchas, Hakluytus posthumus, or, Purchas His Pilgrimes, 20 vols (Glasgow, 1905–1907), 3, р. 93; G. Scammell, ‘European Exiles, Renegades and Outlaws and the Maritime Economy of Asia, c. 1500–1750’, Modern Asian Studies 26.4 (1992), рр. 641–661.

1011

L. Newsom, ‘Disease and Immunity in the Pre-Spanish Philippines’, Social Science & Medicine 48 (1999), рр. 1833–1850; L. Newsom, ‘Conquest, Pestilence and Demographic Collapse in the Early Spanish Philippines’, Journal of Historical Geography 32 (2006), рр. 3–20.

1012

Antonio de Morga, in W. Schurz, The Manila Galleon (New York, 1959), рр. 69–75; также см. Brook, Confusions of Pleasure, рр. 205–206.

1013

D. Irving, Colonial Counterpoint: Music from Early Modern Manila (Oxford, 2010), р. 19.

1014

Об османском кризисе – Pamuk, ‘In the Absence of Domestic Currency’, рр. 353–358.

1015

W. Barrett, ‘World Bullion Flows, 1450–1800’, in J. Tracy (ed.), The Rise of Merchant Empires: Long-Distance Trade in the Early Modern Worlds, 1350–1750 (Cambridge, 1990), рр. 236–237; D. Flynn and A Giráldez, ‘Born with a “Silver Spoon”: The Origin of World Trade in 1571’, Journal of World History 6.2 (1995), рр. 201–221; J. TePaske, ‘New World Silver, Castile, and the Philippines, 1590–1800’, in Richards, Precious Metals, р. 439.

1016

Р. D’Elia, Documenti originali concernenti Matteo Ricci e la storia delle prime relazioni tra l’Europa e la Cina (1579–1615), 4 vols (Rome, 1942), 1, р. 91.

1017

Brook, Confusions of Pleasure, рр. 225–226. Об отношении китайцев к древностям и прошлому – C. Clunas, Superfluous Things: Material Culture and Social Status in Early Modern China (Cambridge, 1991), рр. 91–115.

1018

W. Atwell, ‘International Bullion Flows and the Chinese Economy circa 1530–1650’, Past & Present 95 (1982), р. 86.

1019

Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigation, Voyages, Traffiques, & Discoveries of the English Nations, 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903–1905), 5, р. 498.

1020

C. Boxer, The Christian Century in Japan, 1549–1650 (Berkeley, 1951), рр. 425–427. Главным образом, см. здесь R. von Glahn, ‘Myth and Reality of China’s Seventeenth-Century Monetary Crisis’, Journal of Economic History 56.2 (1996), рр. 429–454; D. Flynn and A Giráldez, ‘Arbitrage, China and World Trade in the Early Modern Period’, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 6.2 (1995), рр. 201–221.

1021

C. Clunas, Empire of Great Brightness: Visual and Material Cultures of Ming China, 1368–1644 (London, 2007); Brook, Confusions of Pleasure.

1022

The Plum in the Golden Vase, or, Chin P’ing Mei, tr. D. Roy, 5 vols (Princeton, 1993–2013). См. здесь N. Ding, Obscene Things: Sexual Politics in Jin Ping Mei (Durham, NC, 2002).

1023

C. Cullen, ‘The Science / Technology Interface in Seventeenth-Century China: Song Yingxing on Qi and the Wu Xing’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 53.2 (1990), рр. 295–318.

1024

W. de Bary, ‘Neo-Confucian Cultivation and the Seventeenth-Century Enlightenment’, in de Bary (ed.), The Unfolding of Neo-Confucianism (New York, 1975), рр. 141–216.

1025

Сама карта Селдена, возможно, была захвачена таким образом, R. Batchelor, ‘The Selden Map Rediscovered: A Chinese Map of East Asian Shipping Routes, c. 1619’, Imago Mundi: The International Journal for the History of Cartography 65.1 (2013), рр. 37–63.

1026

W. Atwell, ‘Ming Observations of Ming Decline: Some Chinese Views on the “Seventeenth Century Crisis” in Comparative Perspective’, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 2 (1988), рр. 316–348.

1027

A. Smith, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, 4.7, ed. R. Campbell and A. Skinner, 2 vols (Oxford, 1976), 2, р. 626.

1028

José de Acosta, Historia natural y moral de las Indias, tr. E. Mangan, Natural and Moral History of the Indies (Durham, NC, 2002), р. 179.

1029

Regnans in excelsis, in R. Miola (ed.), Early Modern Catholicism: An Anthology of Primary Sources (Oxford, 2007), рр. 486–488; см. Р. Holmes, Resistance and Compromise: The Political Thought of the Elizabethan Catholics (Cambridge, 2009).

1030

D. Loades, The Making of the Elizabethan Navy 1540–1590: From the Solent to the Armada (London, 2009).

1031

C. Knighton, ‘A Century on: Pepys and the Elizabethan Navy’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 14 (2004), рр. 143–144; R. Barker, ‘Fragments from the Pepysian Library’, Revista da Universidade de Coimbra 32 (1986), рр. 161–178.

1032

M. Oppenheim, A History of the Administration of the Royal Navy, 1509–1660 (London, 1896), рр. 172–174; N. Williams, The Maritime Trade of the East Anglian Ports, 1550–1590 (Oxford, 1988), рр. 220–221.

1033

C. Martin and G. Parker, The Spanish Armada (Manchester, 1988); G. Mattingly, The Armada (New York, 2005).

1034

E. Bovill, ‘The Madre de Dios’, Mariner’s Mirror 54 (1968), рр. 129–152; G. Scammell, ‘England, Portugal and the Estado da India, c. 1500–1635’, Modern Asian Studies 16.2 (1982), р. 180.

1035

The Portable Hakluyt’s Voyages, ed. R. Blacker (New York, 1967), р. 516; J. Parker, Books to Build an Empire (Amsterdam, 1965), р. 131; N. Matar, Turks, Moors, and Englishmen in the Age of Discovery (New York, 1999).

1036

N. Matar, Britain and Barbary, 1589–1689 (Gainesville, FL, 2005), р. 21; Merchant of Venice, I.1.

1037

C. Dionisotti, ‘Lepanto nella cultura italiana del tempo’, in G. Benzoni (ed.), Il Mediterraneo nella seconda metà del ’500 alla luce di Pepanto (Florence, 1974), рр. 127–151; I. Fenlon, ‘“In destructione Turcharum”: The Victory of Lepanto in Sixteenth-Century Music and Letters’, in E. Degreda (ed.), Andrea Gabrieli e il suo tempo: Atti del Convengo internazionale (Venezia 16–18 settembre 1985) (Florence, 1987), рр. 293–317; I. Fenlon, ‘Lepanto: The Arts of Celebration in Renaissance Venice’, Proceedings of the British Academy 73 (1988), рр. 201–236.

1038

S. Skilliter, ‘Three Letters from the Ottoman “Sultana” Safiye to Queen Elizabeth I’, in S. Stern (ed.), Documents from Islamic Chanceries (Cambridge, MA, 1965), рр. 119–157.

1039

G. Maclean, The Rise of Oriental Travel: English Visitors to the Ottoman Empire, 1580–1720 (London, 2004), рр. 1–47; L. Jardine, ‘Gloriana Rules the Waves: Or, the Advantage of Being Excommunicated (and a Woman)’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 14 (2004), рр. 209–222.

1040

A. Artner (ed.), Hungary as ‘Propugnaculum’ of Western Christianity: Documents from the Vatican Secret Archives (ca. 1214–1606) (Budapest, 2004), р. 112.

1041

Jardine, ‘Gloriana Rules the Waves’, р. 210.

1042

S. Skilliter, William Harborne and the Trade with Turkey 1578–1582: A Documentary Study of the First Anglo-Ottoman Relations (Oxford, 1977), р. 69.

1043

Там же, р. 37.

1044

L. Jardine, Worldly Goods: A New History of the Renaissance (London, 1996), рр. 373–376.

1045

Merchant of Venice, II.7; Othello, I.3.

1046

J. Grogan, The Persian Empire in English Renaissance Writing, 1549–1622 (London, 2014).

1047

A. Kapr, Johannes Gutenberg: Persönlichkeit und Leistung (Munich, 1987).

1048

E. Shaksan Bumas, ‘The Cannibal Butcher Shop: Protestant Uses of Las Casas’s “Brevísima Relación” in Europe and the American Colonies’, Early American Literature 35.2 (2000), рр. 107–136.

1049

A. Hadfield, ‘Late Elizabethan Protestantism, Colonialism and the Fear of the Apocalypse’, Reformation 3 (1998), рр. 311–320.

1050

R. Hakluyt, ‘A Discourse on Western Planting, 1584’, in The Original Writings and Correspondence of the Two Richard Hakluyts, ed. E. Taylor, 2 vols (London, 1935), 2, рр. 211–326.

1051

M. van Gelderen, The Political Thought of the Dutch Revolt, 1555–1590 (Cambridge, 2002).

1052

‘The First Voyage of the right worshipfull and valiant knight, Sir John Hawkins’, in The Hawkins Voyages, ed. C. Markham (London, 1878), р. 5, а также здесь Kelsey, Sir John Hawkins, рр. 52–69.

1053

Hakluyt, ‘A Discourse on Western Planting’, 20, р. 315.

1054

См. J. McDermott, Martin Frobisher: Elizabethan Privateer (New Haven, 2001).

1055

Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts, Venice, 6.i, р. 240.

1056

Бушев П. История посольств и дипломатических отношений русского и иранского государств в 1586–1612 гг. – М., 1976. – С. 37–62.

1057

R. Hakluyt, The principal navigations, voyages, traffiques and discoveries of the English nations, 12 vols (Glasgow, 1903–1905), 3, рр. 15–16; R. Ferrier, ‘The Terms and Conditions under which English Trade was Transacted with Safavid Persia’, Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 49.1 (1986), рр. 50–51; K. Meshkat, ‘The Journey of Master Anthony Jenkinson to Persia, 1562–1563’, Journal of Early Modern History 13 (2009), рр. 209–228.

1058

S. Cabot, ‘Ordinances, instructions and aduertisements of and for the direction of the intended voyage for Cathaye’, 22, in Hakluyt, Principal navigations, 2, р. 202.

1059

Vilches, New World Gold, р. 27.

1060

A. Romero, S. Chilbert and M. Eisenhart, ‘Cubagua’s Pearl-Oyster Beds: The First Depletion of a Natural Resource Caused by Europeans in the American Continent’, Journal of Political Ecology 6 (1999), рр. 57–78.

1061

M. Drelichman and H. – J. Voth, ‘The Sustainable Debts of Philip II: A Reconstruction of Spain’s Fiscal Position, 1560–1598’, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Discussion Paper DP6611 (2007).

1062

D. Fischer, The Great Wave: Price Revolutions and the Rhythm of History (Oxford, 1996), а также D. Flynn, ‘Sixteenth-Century Inflation from a Production Point of View’, in E. Marcus and N. Smukler (eds), Inflation through the Ages: Economic, Social, Psychological, and Historical Aspects (New York, 1983), рр. 157–169.

1063

O. Gelderblom, Cities of Commerce: The Institutional Foundations of International Trade in the Low Countries, 1250–1650 (Princeton, 2013).

1064

J. Tracy, A Financial Revolution in the Habsburg Netherlands: Renten and Renteniers in the County of Holland, 1515–1565 (Berkeley, 1985).

1065

O. van Nimwegen, ‘Deser landen crijchsvolck’. Het Staatse leger en de militarie revoluties 1588–1688 (Amsterdam, 2006).

1066

J. Israel, The Dutch Republic: Its Rise, Greatness and Fall 1477–1806 (Oxford, 1995), рр. 308–312.

1067

W. Fritschy, ‘The Efficiency of Taxation in Holland’, in O. Gelderblom (ed.), The Political Economy of the Dutch Republic (2003), рр. 55–84.

1068

C. Koot, Empire at the Periphery: British Colonists, Anglo-Dutch Trade, and the Development of the British Atlantic, 1621–1713 (New York, 2011), рр. 19–22; Ею Sluitter, ‘Dutch-Spanish Rivalry in the Caribbean Area’, Hispanic American Historical Review 28.2 (1948), рр. 173–178.

1069

Israel, Dutch Republic, рр. 320–321.

1070

M. Echevarría Bacigalupe, ‘Un notable episodio en la guerra económica hispano-holandesa: El decreto Guana 1603’, Hispania: Revista española de historia 162 (1986), рр. 57–97; J. Israel, Empires and Entrepots: The Dutch, the Spanish Monarchy and the Jews, 1585–1713 (London, 1990), р. 200.

1071

R. Unger, ‘Dutch Ship Design in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries’, Viator 4 (1973), рр. 387–415.

1072

A. Saldanha, ‘The Itineraries of Geography: Jan Huygen van Linschoten’s Itinerario and Dutch Expeditions to the Indian Ocean, 1594–1602’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 101.1 (2011), рр. 149–177.

1073

K. Zandvliet, Mapping for Money: Maps, Plans and Topographic Paintings and their Role in Dutch Overseas Expansion during the 16th and 17th Centuries (Amsterdam, 1998), рр. 37–49, 164–189.

1074

E. Beekman, Paradijzen van Weeler. Koloniale Literatuur uit Nederlands-Indië, 1600–1950 (Amsterdam, 1988), р. 72.

1075

D. Lach, Asia in the Making of Europe, 3 vols (Chicago, 1977), 2, рр. 492–545.

1076

O. Gelderblom, ‘The Organization of Long-Distance Trade in England and the Dutch Republic, 1550–1650’, in Gelderblom, Political Economy of the Dutch Republic, р. 223–254.

1077

J.-W. Veluwenkamp, ‘Merchant Colonies in the Dutch Trade System (1550–1750)’, in K. Davids, J. Fritschy and Р. Klein (eds), Kapitaal, ondernemerschap en beleid. Studies over economie en politiek in Nederland, Europe en Azië van 1500 tot heden (Amsterdam, 1996), рр. 141–164.

1078

Цитируется по C. Boxer, The Dutch in Brazil 1624–1654 (Oxford, 1957), рр. 2–3.

1079

Гоа в начале семнадцатого века – A. Gray and H. Bell (eds), The Voyage of François Pyrard of Laval to the East Indies, the Maldives, the Moluccas and Brazil, 2 vols (London, 1888), 2, рр. 2–139.

1080

J. de Jong, De waaier van het fortuin. De Nederlands in Asië de Indonesiche archipel, 1595–1950 (Zoetermeer, 1998), р. 48.

1081

K. Zandvliet, The Dutch Encounter with Asia, 1600–1950 (Amsterdam, 2002), р. 152.

1082

См. J. Postma (ed.), Riches from Atlantic Commerce: Dutch Transatlantic Trade and Shipping, 1585–1817 (Leiden, 2003).

1083

J. van Dam, Gedateerd Delfts aardwek (Amsterdam, 1991); J. van Dam, Dutch Delftware 1620–1850 (Amsterdam, 2004).

1084

A. van der Woude, ‘The Volume and Value of Paintings in Holland at the Time of the Dutch Republic’, in J. de Vries and D. Freedberg (eds), Art in History, History in Art: Studies in Seventeenth-Century Dutch Culture (Santa Monica, 1991), рр. 285–330.

1085

См. в целом S. Schama, The Embarrassment of Riches (New York, 1985); Slive, Dutch Painting, 1600–1800 (New Haven, 1995).

1086

T. Brook, Vermeer’s Hat: The Seventeenth Century and the Dawn of the Global World (London, 2008), рр. 5–83.

1087

The Travels of Peter Mundy in Europe and Asia, 1608–1667, ed. R. Temple, 5 vols (Cambridge, 1907–1936), рр. 70–71; J. de Vries, The Industrious Revolution: Consumer Behavior and the Household Economy, 1650 to the Present (Cambridge, 2008), р. 54.

1088

J. Evelyn, Diary of John Evelyn, ed. E. de Beer, 6 vols (Oxford, 1955), 1, рр. 39–40.

1089

См. C. van Strien, British Travellers in Holland during the Stuart Period: Edward Browne and John Locke as Tourists in the United Provinces (Leiden, 1993).

1090

G. Scammell, ‘After da Gama: Europe and Asia since 1498’, Modern Asian Studies 34.3 (2000), р. 516.

1091

Pedro de Cieza de Léon, The Incas of Pedro de Cieza de Léon, tr. H de Onis (1959), 52, р. 171.

1092

Там же, 55, рр. 177–178.

1093

S. Hill (ed.), Bengal in 1756–1757: A Selection of Public and Private Papers Dealing with the Affairs of the British in Bengal during the Reign of Siraj-uddaula, 3 vols (London, 1905), 1, рр. 3–5.

1094

Р. Perdue, ‘Empire and Nation in Comparative Perspective: Frontier Administration in Eighteenth-Century China’, Journal of Early Modern History 5.4 (2001), р. 282; C. Tilly (ed.), The Formation of National States in Western Europe (Princeton, 1975), р. 15.

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